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(WASHINGTON) — Before U.S. lawmakers decide whether they will address same-sex couples in a comprehensive immigration overhaul bill, the Supreme Court could make the decision for them.

The high court faces a choice this month to uphold or strike down all or parts of the federal Defense of Marriage Act’s definition of marriage as being between a man and a woman.  If DOMA is struck down, gay marriage advocates will likely view it as an unambiguously positive outcome for their cause because, in part, it also resolves the question of whether the immigration law can apply to same-sex couples.

“For the first time in immigration equality’s history, our legal team is now assisting couples in preparing their green card applications,” said Steve Ralls, the communications director at the advocacy group Immigration Equality.  “We’re definitely preparing couples.  The court ruling and the backup plan of congressional legislation make us confident more so than at any other time.”

But a court decision has its downsides as well.  Although the Obama administration is likely to implement the court’s decision in a way favorable to gay marriage advocates, a future administration might not.

If DOMA is upheld or if the court’s ruling on the constitutionality of a federal definition of marriage is less clear, the result could be continued legal uncertainty for gay couples.  One way Democrats in the Senate and gay marriage advocates have hoped to resolve this is by attaching an amendment to the immigration bill that would give same-sex couples the same benefits as heterosexual couples under the immigration law.

But Democrats face an uphill struggle in Congress where Republicans have opposed the inclusion of a same-sex marriage amendment in the immigration bill.  A principal Republican sponsor of the legislation, Sen. Marco Rubio, R-Fla., said last Thursday, he would walk away from his own immigration bill if a same-sex marriage amendment is included.

With the court’s final decision fast approaching, here are some ways the issue could shake out:

The Supreme Court Upholds DOMA, Congress Does Nothing

If the Supreme Court upholds DOMA, there is only one way for same-sex couples to be recognized by immigration law: congressional action.

“Their status as spouses or as married is invisible for U.S. immigration law purposes because of DOMA,” said Scott Titshaw, associate professor of law at Mercer University in Macon, Ga.

That means any benefits given to heterosexual couples couples in the immigration bill, like the ability to petition for a green card on behalf of a spouse, would not apply to same-sex couples.

The Supreme Court Upholds DOMA, Congress Addresses Gay Couples

Even if the Supreme Court keeps DOMA in place, Congress could pass legislation like the one sponsored (and immediately withdrawn) by Sen. Patrick Leahy, D-Vt., which would have recognized marriages that were entered into in states where same-sex marriage is legal.

That means that in any of the 12 states that recognize same-sex marriage, the federal government would defer to the states in determining whether that marriage is valid for immigration purposes.  And marriages entered into in other countries would also be recognized.

Advocates have also proposed a second option that would take marriage out of the equation altogether, by allowing the government to recognize couples in a “permanent partnership.”  Such an amendment, based on the Uniting American Families Act, would allow couples who live in states where gay marriage is not recognized to be recognized under U.S. immigration law.

The Supreme Court Strikes Down DOMA, Congress Does Nothing

If DOMA’s federal definition of marriage is struck down, the question of how immigration law is interpreted when it comes to gay couples falls to the Obama administration to decide.

That’s a good thing for immigration advocates who view the administration’s decision to stop defending DOMA in federal courts as a clear indication that they will interpret the immigration statutes in a way that favors gay couples.

But unlike a congressional amendment, which would put the issue on sound footing even if the Supreme Court does not rule in favor of gay marriage advocates, relying solely on the court to strike down DOMA could mean that a future administration could reverse Obama’s actions when it comes to immigration law.

The Supreme Court Strikes Down DOMA, Congress Addresses Marriage

If Congress chooses to cover its bases even if the Supreme Court strikes down DOMA by explicitly stating in the law that same-sex couples are recognized by immigration legislation, it would take the issue out of a future administration’s hands and would make court challenges more difficult.

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